Caravirtual's Blog

a blog about microblogging and personal learning environments (university seminar)

Lerninhalte strukturieren (Zielgruppe Schüler) 24/11/2009

Filed under: seminar-task — caravirtual @ 19:20
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Ich wurde nun einer Gruppe zugeteilt, die sich jedoch nicht mit der Zielgruppe der Studenten befassen sollte, sondern mit Schülern. Wir sollen nun also die Rolle eines Lehrers einnehmen, der seinen Schülern einen Überblick darüber geben will, in welcher Form Lerninhalte in der Schulzeit zu erwarten sind, wie diese sich clustern lassen und wie diese später organisiert werden.


Meine Gruppe hat sich für die grobe Einteilung der Lerninhalte in

Hardcopy, Softcopy und Internet entschieden.

Zum Oberbegriff Hardcopy zählen Bücher, Kopien, Mitschriften aus dem Unterricht und all das, was man eben in die Hand nehmen kann.

Zu Softcopy zählen sämtliche Software-Formate, die man auf seinem Computer erstellt und speichert, also digital zur Verfügung hat. Dies sind unter anderem (Text-) Dokumente, Präsentationen (z.B. Power Point), aber auch Lernsoftware.

Die dritte Dimension bildet das Internet mit seiner Vielzahl von Inhalten, unter anderem Blogs und Videos.

Wie bereits in meinem vorigen Artikel würde ich auch hier noch die mündliche Form hinzufügen als vierte Dimension.

Gerade in der Schule werden viele Informationen während des Unterrichtsgesprächs mündlich weitergegeben und vermittelt. Da man nicht alles sofort aufschreibt, aber dennoch im Kopf behalten kann, ist dies meiner Meinung nach eine wichtige Dimension. Somit wird das Gedächtnis zu einer ganz eigenen PLE, denn sobald man neue Informationen erhält, werden diese automatisch und unbewusst in bestimmten Kategorien abgespeichert.

Sobald man diese Gedanken niederschreibt würden sie dann zu einer der anderen Dimensionen werden.


Schreibe ich die mündlich erhaltenen Informationen handschriftlich in meinen College-Block, wird es zur Dimension Hardcopy.

Tippe ich sie in ein Word-Dokument, betrifft es die Dimension Softcopy.

Verwerte ich die Informationen in einem Blog, handelt es sich dann um die Dimension Internet.

Es wird also deutlich, dass die Lerninhalte keine feste Form im engeren Sinne haben, sondern ihre Form ändern können.


Task #6 Holzkamp´s learning theory (english version) 08/07/2009


In Task #6 we should research for a theory, which fits to “educational (micro)blogging”. Then we are supposed to develop a small usecase for our future pedagogical field of practice using this theory. I opt for the “Subjektwissenschaftliche Lerntheorie” by the german psychologist Klaus Holzkamp.

The Theory

The “Subjektwissenschaftliche Lerntheorie“ is a learning theory from the standpoint of the subject. Holzkamp´s theory is based on the question, what kind of intentions the learners have.

According to Holzkamp learning is a main ability to cope with life, which happens when a subject (learner) encounters resistance during learning. Learning results from the discrepance between will, aim and ability. (cf. Holzkamp 2004, p. 29f.)

If the individual ability is not sufficient to solve the problem, one needs to adopt something new. The person now has problems in acting, which he cannot resolve with available abilities. The problems of acting turn out to a problem of learning. To cope with the latter you need to set a kind of intermediate step, which is called “Lernschleife” (learning-loop) by Holzkamp. This results in a learning process, which can proceed in many different ways. (cf. Holzkamp 1995, p. 445f.)

Holzkamp decides between two ways of learning. On the one hand is the accidental learning, on the other hand is an intentional learning, which means that an arranged learning occurs, because the person has to do it to achieve one´s aim. (cf. Holzkamp 2004, p. 30f.)

A learning act can have different character: defensive or reflationary. A defensive learning act exists if the aim implies an avoidance of interference and menace or if the person uses a strategy of refusing.

The aim of a reflationary learning act is the expansion of the own knowledge and appears i.a. with a request for help. Is the learning act successful a knowledge expansion arises. Holzkamp calls this “Weltverfügung” (world disposition). (cf. Holzkamp 1995, p. 448f.)


Holzkamp, Klaus (1995): Lernen. Subjektwissenschaftliche Grundlegung. Frankfurt am Main/ New York. Kap. 4.

Holzkamp, Klaus: Wider den Lehr-Lern-Kurzschluß. Interview zum Thema Lernen. In: Faulstich, Peter/ Ludwig, Joachim (Hrsg.) (2004): Expansives Lernen. Hohengehren, S. 29-38.

The Usecase

Imagine pupils write a blog with a relevant content. They write some blogentries and maybe also take a note of their problems with the theme or technology. Therefore the problems of learning were documented automatically and the engaged learning loop could be visible for the owner of the blog himself and his teacher, too.

You can probably analyse on the basis of the blogentry, if it is intentional or accidental learning.

The pupil could survey his own blogentry and thereby look on the current problems to get a clearer view and more distance to the problem. His previous acting could be reflected and causes of the problems would be clarified. One´s own failing show up and should be reflected in another context to negotiate it. The problem of acting can be taken over consciously as the problem of learning. In this manner, their own preconditions of action could improve.

Other people, for example classmates, can add comments to the blogentries to give suggestions or support. That can inspire the learning process.

During the learning loop, “Twitter” could also be used to get fast answers to the own questions or problems. But maybe the limitations of 140 characters at Twitter could be too less to describe the problem.

In my opinion the step of verbalisation or rather transforming the present problem of learning into a written form is already a learning process, because you deal with it.


Blogging for adults (english summery of task #5) 04/06/2009

Filed under: seminar-task — caravirtual @ 18:28
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The following questions were asked in our last seminar meeting by a member:

  • How can adults be “taught” to use the internet not like classical media?
  • How do have educational blogs to be changed to increase active participation – and I talk only about comments and discussions?
  • What are the fears of adults to write a blog? How can they be reduced?
  • How does a virtual learning environment look like which motivates adults to write an own blog or even participate at all?
  • What does adults motivate to share their thoughts and learning experiences?

I sum up my thoughts which I wrote down in german the week before.

The first question I had was, what is meant by “classical media”. I was so focused on the internet that I thought using e-mail programs and search engines are meant. Sabine, a member of my seminar, was so kind to send me a comment where she explained me what was meant: classical media are newspaper, television etc. Thus it has nothing to do with the internet.

I think it is important to give adults reasons for participation in the internet. Selfmotivation and the recognition of pros are also important.

Adults and people, who are inhibited in using computers and internet in general, need support. They could be introduced and supported about possibilities and risks by professionals. Probably there are a lot of things in the web they don´t know about.

Maybe it´s helpful for them to start a blog within a group, e.g. at the “adult education center” (VHS). Every attendant would have the possibility to get an introduction into blogging or the like and would be attended during the learning process. The attendants could write blogs about their hobbies and interests. Beside this they could get the task to write comments to the other blogs. Therefore they could change their thoughts and give helpful suggestions to others.


task #4 One of 33 ways on how to use blogs in education 11/05/2009

Filed under: seminar-task — caravirtual @ 23:53
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Task #4 is to select one way of the 33 Ways to use blogs in your classroom and in the educational setting or describe a new one which I like best and connect it to any educational theory.

My choice is way #13:

“Create a blog where students describe a typical day at school. Invite other same aged students from different global locations to contribute the same type of information on the same blog. Let students ask questions and leave comments to gain cultural awareness. Students can then begin to share/compare thematic units being learned, novels being read, field trips being taken, etc.”

This is in my opinion very interesting for students, because in this manner they have the opportunity to learn a lot about other cultures and the way other students learn at school. The best is to be connected with students all around the world. Because the bigger the distance between the locations of the schools is the more interesting and exciting the project is.

This reminds me of the school exchanges which are typical for Germany. The schools I know arrange it with french schools when the students are in class level 8 or 9.  Mostly it is more effort than fun for teachers and students and after the short exchange of 10 or 14 days there is no more contact between the students of both countries. It´s a pity, because students could learn more, in particular the foreign language if they stay in contact with native speakers.

So a blog in collaboration with both exchange schools/ classes could accompany the time before and after the exchange. The students would know each other better and would have a platform to communicate.


task #3 tweeducation?

Filed under: seminar-task — caravirtual @ 23:05
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The task is the same like the last one, because most seminar-attendents haven´t done it so far. So I searched for more sources of how microblogging can be used in school/education to support learning.

I found a paper with the topic: “Microblogging In Technology Enhanced Learning: A Use-Case Inspection of PPE Summer School 2008” by Cristina Costa, Guenter Beham, Wolfgang Reinhardt and Martin Sillaots.

The paper is about the experiences of a group of summer school attendants who used twitter. Most of them haven´t known or used twitter before. Beside this they wanted analyzing  the impact it had on this given context according to the users’ own views and post-reflection.

They analysed all tweets of the attendants and conducted a survey asking for feedback from all to get a clearer understanding how microblogging was used. Comparing all tweet clouds during the first two days Twitter was mainly used to exchange only messages without links to other resources. The next day  the attendees shared a lot of links related to lectures and workshops via Twitter.  Although the majority of answers received inform them that, in general, microblogging was well accepted and regarded as an interesting approach, most individuals also pointed some negative aspects to it. The limited length of the messages was one of the main points of criticism, only preceded by Twitter’s design structure, which seemed to displease many of the summer schoolers. In their own words, it was quite limitative.

Nevertheless, in the author´s opinion, such approach doesn’t seem to comply with everyone’s learning styles. This
leaves them to conclude microblogging can be used as an interesting discussion and sharing back-channel in learning events.

My ideas to this article in connection to education:

This article is not exactly about the relation to education, in particular not at school. But it descripes the first steps with twitter of students and their experiences with it.  Some of them pointed out that 140 signs are too less for messaging. I agree, because for explaining something its really too less. But for the general use of twitter (the question: what are you doing?) it will be enough.

Besides the authors describe that it doesn’t seem to comply with everyone’s learning styles. This is an important hint, also for using at schools. In my opinion you can´t forcing pupils into using twitter. By the way I am also not very convinced by it.

Another reason is, students at school who should use twitter for learning need the possibility of using a computer whenever they need it. Not every familiy has an internet-flatrate yet. Beside this it´s necessary that teacher has the know-how to handle this whole microblogging-system. And maybe it can help making children addicted to the internet.


Task #2 Blogs at school 05/05/2009

Filed under: seminar-task — caravirtual @ 20:09
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The second Task:

Search for sources of how blogs can be used in school/education to support learning. Quote the most interesting parts in a blogentry and add your own thoughts.

I found the article “The seven-year-old bloggers” at the BBC-internet-site.

It is about young british pupils who use weblogs as part of their normal routine. In the teachers opinion it gets children more interested in school work they might otherwise have disliked.

In his experience the children enjoy using the weblogs so much that they happily do extra work at home. Their blogs are about things that interest them, e.g. Cricket.

The seven-year-old pupils are doing what 14 or 15-year-olds are expected to do, so the IT-knowledge is very good.

Furthermore most of them have made greater advances in literacy than the teachers would normally expect for their age group.

The teacher (John Mills) says: “They are really involved. They know it’s different, they now have something that lets them speak with their own voice. Adults tend to tell children what to think; weblogs give them a chance to voice their own thoughts”… And in addition:

“There’s a degree of trust involved. They know that if they post anything they shouldn’t, their weblog will be taken away from them.”

Other teacher share Mills opinion and see opportunities for using weblogs across all areas of learning.

I think the fact that the pupils are very young is interesting. It´s amazing that they are able to combine the dealing with writing (I find out that british childs start school at the age of five) and the use of a computer, especially using the internet/ a blog. So they improve their efficiency in expression, spelling and IT-knowledge at the same time.

The premise for this kind of education is, however, a teacher with the required skills. It would be great when it works, but this teacher is only an exception so far. But- the article by the BBC was written in 2004! Maybe there are now more teachers who follow this example. In Great Britain and in other countries.